Andalucia Rustica

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Castillos en Cordoba

Castillo de Santaella

Castillos en Cordoba

Castillo de Santaella

El Castillo de Santaella se ubica en el extremo sureste del recinto amurallado y a pesar de haber sido afectado por las diversas edificaciones acontecidas a lo largo del tiempo, ha permanecido en pie una torre defensiva de tapial con zócalo de sillería y la estructura del patio de armas. A lo anterior se acompañan algunos torreones parcialmente conservados y varios lienzos de muralla. Todo se encuentra rodeado de barranqueras, que permite proteger mejor a la villa y con una puerta de entrada que se comunica con la actual plaza Mayor del pueblo.

Desde un punto de vista histórico, su origen islámico parece estar demostrado a través de crónicas musulmanas como la de Al-Idrisí que lo menciona en el siglo XII. Por lo cual, ya durante dominio almohade se encuentra esta estructura defensiva levantada. En los siglos bajomedievales, la información es más certera. A través de la política de pactos y capitulaciones efectuada por Fernando III el Santo entre 1239-1240 en gran parte de la Campiña cordobesa, muchos castillos pasaron al bando cristiano. Entre ellos, se incluye el castillo y Villa de Santaella que todavía a mediados del siglo XIII poseía la combinación de alcaldes moros y cristianos. En 1265 Alfonso X el Sabio lo entregará al concejo de la ciudad de Córdoba. Permanecerá bajo el yugo realengo gran parte de su historia, con intervalos temporales donde es obtenido por familias de poderosos linajes señoriales. El ejemplo más claro es durante el siglo XV, pues entre 1444 y 1451 fue entregado por el rey don Juan II a Martín Fernández Portocarrero, señor de Palma del Río. Habrá que esperar a 1460, donde comienzan a surgir nuevos datos del castillo como consecuencia del estadillo de la guerra civil castellana entre Enrique IV y el infante don Alfonso (1465-1468).

En esta situación tan inestable, se produce un enfrentamiento entre los bandos nobiliarios por apoyar a uno u otro de los dos monarcas, desembocando en el reino de Córdoba que las fortalezas terminen en manos señoriales.

El Castillo de Santaella lo poseerán los señores de Aguilar, en concreto don Alfonso
Fernández de Córdoba, hermano de Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, más conocido como
el Gran Capitán. En este periodo, puso de alcaide a Fernando de las Infantas, hasta que el 18 de septiembre de 1474 se produce la ofensiva de Diego Fernández de Córdoba,Castillo de Santaella conde de Cabra, primo de los anteriores, sobre el dicho castillo, capturando al Gran Capitán y a su esposa, entre otras personalidades. Se quedó con la fortaleza hasta que en 1478, con la llegada de los Reyes Católicos, se pacifique el reino. A cambio de una gran suma de maravedís, devuelve el castillo a la corona, y por ende, al concejo de Córdoba.

Ya desde principios del siglo XVI hasta la actualidad, perdió completamente su función militar, desmontándose para solares de los vecinos de Santaella por orden de monarcas como Carlos V. Desde aquella centuria, con fortuna se han conservado los restos arqueológicos actuales sobreviviendo a enfrentamientos y guerras como la de la Independencia o la Civil. Permanece protegido bajo el amparo de la Declaración genérica del Decreto de 22 de abril de 1949 y la Ley 16/1985 del 25 de junio sobre el Patrimonio Histórico Español considerándose un Bien de Interés Cultural.

Javier López Rider
Universidad de Córdoba

Fuente: Ayuntamiento de Santaella

Castillo de Santaella

Castillo de Santaella

Castillo de Santaella

Muralla

Castillo de Santaella | Castillo y Recinto Amurallado de Santaella


11 comentarios

  1. Charlotte Fertov escribio:

    Please open the nestholes again- or offer the birds another choice for nesting. They come back to the same place every year to nest- its unbearable ti thing they no longer get any refuge.

  2. Domingo escribio:

    Subject: Nesting of Swifts
    As everyone probably knows Andalucía Rústica has nothing to do with the subject, we only offer information about the Santaella Castle as a monument.

    In any case we have been interested in the subject and we have request information from the town hall regarding the swine nesting issue.

    Apparently the Tourism Area of the City of Santaella has begun weeks past the planning and adaptation of different urban spaces to encourage the nesting of swifts and other birds with the aim of promoting the arrival and settlement of these species in the town.

    For the development of the works that will allow adapting the new nesting areas, the town hall is counting on the advice of a member of the SEO BirdLife collective.

    The objective was to plan and adapt the nests before these bird colonies arrive, especially in the area of the Plaza Mayor (square), explained the mayor of the municipality, José A. who stressed the «importance» of this previous action in spaces as the Torreón, since the restoration works have involved the closure of the usual nesting area -The mechinales- to protect and safeguard the structure of the building.

    The area of tourism of the town hall of Santaella has send us several links where the subject is discussed.

    https://www.facebook.com/SantaellaCulturaTurismo/photos/pcb.662140410907055/662115850909511/?type=3&theater

    https://www.diariocordoba.com/noticias/cordobaprovincia/ayuntamiento-habilita-nidos-vencejos-muralla-castillo_1295845.html

    https://www.diariocordoba.com/noticias/cordobaprovincia/turismo-ultima-varias-zonas-anidamiento-vencejos_1284718.html

    http://www.santaelladigital.com/2019/02/santaella-prepara-las-diversas-zonas-de.html

    http://www.santaelladigital.com/2019/04/el-ayuntamiento-inicia-la-adecuacion-de.html

    • Bjarne Østergaard, Denmark escribio:

      Sir! In these EU-election times I feel ashame to have been lead astray 🙁 I do not read Spanish so I rely on Google Translate to follow Spanish webpages. The link-pages you provided are most informative. I understand that all reasonable measures have been taken on an expert level with regard to wildlife while maintenance is undertaken at the tower. Your effort to ensure the swift nesting places have intensified my wish to visit Andalucia and Santaella in particular as a wildlife-turist.
      Can you advise me where I can follow the progress of moving the swifts to the «new» breeding site.

      All the best …

      • Domingo escribio:

        Maybe during your visit to Santaella you have time to visit the Town Hall (Ayuntamiento) and ask about the subject, I am sure they will give you all the information you need.

        As I commented in the previous comment, we only intend to give information about the monument itself, but as fervent defenders of nature, fauna and flora, we will continue to be interested in the issue of nesting swifts…

  3. Louise Bentley escribio:

    Dear Sir/ Madam,

    We are very distressed to see the closure of the Swifts nesting site. This may have been done in ignorance but it must be rectified quickly. These birds are declining in numbers and they are 100% faithful to their own nest which they are desperate to return to. I would strongly ask you to get a builder to re-instate many holes somthese birds can breed this year. There is help and advice on how you can do this. From Barcelona Swifts and Swift Conservation UK who have previously worked in partnership with Councils in Andalusia. PLEASE ADDRESS THIS AS A MATTER OF URGENCY. With regards, James and Louise Bentley

  4. Jesper Toft escribio:

    I am appalled to see that the nestsites of the swifts have been closed. The swifts breed the same place every year and cannot find new nesting sites. Please open the nestsites again asap. The tourists will also like that!

  5. The European legislation, which has to be applied in Spain as well, forbids to destroy nests. This massive closing of nests is not only illegal but also cruel for those birds that travel 7-10,000 km to breed there. Those insect-eaters are useful but also a source of joy and summertime spirit, they have been part of the turist attraction for centuries.

    Please re-establish the nests without any delay!

  6. gabriele schaden escribio:

    Why have the nest sites of swifts been closed? They are protected species and I am sure you were violating EU laws! Open them immediately, please! The birds desperately try to enter their traditional brooding places. They are very conservative animals and will not switch to other places within days. They will waste their energy trying to enter the closed holes and no offspring will be produced.
    Please act quickly!

  7. Jochem Kühnen escribio:

    Seriously? Are all those holes to which every year birds return from Africa to breed closed now? That is horrible! Please, please undo that and allow the spectacular Swift to return!

  8. Bjarne Østergaard, Denmark escribio:

    Sir / Madam ! The terrible news that the returning swifts, as of 2019, have found their nestsites closed, has shaken the birding community. Seen from a turist point of view, Santaella Castel without circling swifts would be a terrible loss. You will soon find that you will have to increase the use of insectiside to protect your crops. Do open the nest holes again, quickly. The swift screams of horror and terror of now will change to song of joy brought by the birds happiness from a new greneration of chicks.

  9. Mark Smyth escribio:

    Why have the holes been closed to stop swifts nesting?

    Next year the international swift/vencejo comes to Spain. I will urge the organisers to cancel in disgust