Citadel of Marchena
Citadel of Marchena – Alcazar
Belonging to the Archaeological of Marchena, the Citadel of Marchena is located at one end of the village, at the highest and best defended area, having direct access to the countryside and surrounded by an independent perimeter walled.
Within this walled enclosure are part of the most important historic and artistic monuments of Marchena. Noteworthy is the impresive Church of San Juan Bautista, Santa María de la Mota Church, the Convent of the Immaculate Conception (Santa María – The Girl), the Cilla del Cabildo, Gate of El Tiro, Ducal Square, The Shield House, the Palace House nº 6, the Ave María Palatial House, the Vera-Cruz Chapel, etc.
The origin of the Citadel of Marchena is clearly Almohad by the type of bastion and wall enployee. The walled enclusure is in an acceptable state after several expansions and and reconstructions in diferents periods.
Irregular floor plan to fit the topography, rounded to avoid qiebros that violate the security.
The walled enclosure has several towers and varios types:
A) Rectangular (a feature of the construction of the XII and XIII)
B) Round Plant (must be a medieval Christian work, perhaps building on the original Almohad core.
C) Polygonal Plant (observed from the X and the XII century)
Highlighted in this walled the gates fo the Muslim city, works of great importance since it served as a link between town and country, among which are preserved today should be noted Arco de la Rosa, Morón Gate, the Gate of El Tiro or the Carmona Gate.
Most of his paintings have been preserved, although in unequal state: either free or embedded in buildings from different eras. Its perimeter is large. The extension of the enclosure has a major axis oriented north-south with a length of 600 meters, and a smaller one east-west with 400 meters. The northern area of higher altitude, it is the site of the former Muslim fortress, isolated from the old medina by a canvas wall. In this area stood the ancient palace of the Dukes of Arcos, gentlemen of the town and the Monastery of Santa María de la Concepción and the Church of Santa María de la Mota, who keeps the place name of its former site. At the head of this church are some walls and bastions belonging to internal constructions of the citadel.
The route of the wall appear to correspond to the Almohad period in most part, with large canvases of mud bastions of square section with battlements of oriental type and strips of brick, situated at a regular distance along the entire path.
In some areas like the northeast, it is clear theuse of defenses crowding and corbels, corresponding to a type used in military construction zones flanking easier, been able to see any possible watchtower, opening another site reinforcement with identical characteristics, badly damaged. The scheme reflects the walled Muslim city with indoors.
More about the Medieval Wall of Marchena
* Area of the Citadel: here was the old Al-qasaba of which does not keep anything. Acted as the administrative center of the medina and was randed in the highest part of Marchena (La Mota), with a wall of the wall itself independent of Madina, enhanced and with greater proportions from which militarily controlled disturbances in inside the medina, as well as assaults from outside. Both structures has a series of towers in disrepair. In this room the door was reached by the Gate of El Tiro and the Gate of Marchena.
* Second enclosure “El parque”: it was buit after the wall, but attached to and end in a final Islamic period or an initial Christian period. It is accessed through an arch known as El Portillo.This enclosure was fortified and appeared adjancent to the citadel enclosure on hes northeast side.
* The Medina enclosure: The Medina occupied what is today the district of San Juan, wich could be accessed through a series of gates or output communicate with teh nearest roads leading to major cities (Arco de la Rosa Gate – Morón Gate).
* Gate of Écija
* Gate of Osuna
* Sevilla Gate (Arco de la Rosa)
* Gate of El Tiro
* Gate of El Portillo
* Gate of Carmona
* Gate of Morón (Museum of Lorenzo Coullaut-Valera)
Round of the Citadel
It is a tourist avenue or rest zone of new construction nearby walls that surrounded an protected the Islamic Citadel (12th century) and afterwards the Dukes of Arcos Palace.
We can distinguish the octagonal tower as the watchtower and gives protection to the Gate of Carmona, the entrance to the ancient Medina. At present this gate open with only one gap which communicated directly with the Citadel. Its arch of entrance should be a horseshoe arch which could have been one of the most ancient gates of the enclosure.
A viewpoint exists in the enclosure from which we can obtain a panoramic of Marchena and of part of the countryside.
This zone serves as scene for the Medieval Market.